Wednesday, 26 December 2012

Well, SHOULD we, or SHOULD we NOT?

I'm sure you're familiar with the phrase 'tiene que', meaning 'you have to'. 
Another common way of saying 'you should' or 'you must' is to use the verb deber. 
So, consider the following sentences:

'Tienes que manejar, no tienes que viajar por avión' 
'Debes manejar, no debes viajar por avión' 

Apart from the subtle difference between 'you have to' and 'you should', normally implied by the choice of verb, can you see any difference? 

You may have spotted it immediately, but it's worth pointing it out, just so that you're aware of the structural difference between the two forms. 

The first says
'You have to drive, you DON'T HAVE TO fly' 
While the second says
'You must drive, you MUST NOT fly' 

The point here is that 'tener que' and 'deber' are very similar in a positive context, but quite different in the negative. 

The difference extends across all tenses, so you could say
'No habría tenido que pagar'-' you should not have had to pay'
'No habría debido pagar' - 'you should not have paid' 

I hope that's solved another problem you didn't even know you had. 

¡Feliz Navidad! 

Sunday, 21 October 2012

It's got to be.e.e.e.e.e.e perfect

Learning to speak Spanish is, like Genius, 99 percent perspiration but, just occasionally, you come across one simple thing that allows you to take a huge step forward,with very little extra effort.
We all know that verb conjugation is the backbone of any language,but it can be backbreaking work, learning the conjugations of all the verbs in all the tenses.

So, how about if I told you that you could conjugate EIGHT different tenses just by conjugating ONE verb?
It sounds too good to be true but, just this once, it really is that simple.
Look at this example.

I have eaten. We had eaten.They will have eaten.
I have been.You had been.He will have been.
He has spoken. She had spoken. I will have spoken.
We've just used three verbs, in three different tenses,and different 'persons' but used the same form of the verb in each case - the past participle - eaten,been,and spoken.
The only verb we actually had to conjugate was 'have'.

The same is true in Spanish.
Using the verb 'haber' and the past participle of any other verb, you can create the so-called 'perfect'tenses.

So, let's list the tenses.

I have built it - Lo he construido - present perfect
I had eaten - Yo había comido - pluperfect
I will have done it - Lo habré hecho - future perfect
I would have bought it - Lo habría comprado - conditional perfect
It's good that you have read it - Es bueno que tu lo hayas leido - present perfect subjunctive
I doubted that he had seen me - Yo dudaba que él me hubiera visto - pluperfect subjunctive Thanks for having been here - Gracias por haber estado aquí - perfect infinitive

Perhaps the claim of EIGHT tenses was a little exaggerated, as the remaining one is rarely used, even in literature, but it doesn't hurt to be able to identify it.
After I had eaten, I went out - Después de que hube comido, salí - preterite perfect

Apart from the conjugations of the verb 'haber', all you need for all the other verbs is the past participle.
To get this with most regular verbs - drop 'ir' or 'er' from the end of the infinitive, and add 'ido' Examples:
Comer - comido
Vender - vendido
Salir - salido

With 'ar'verbs, just drop the 'ar'and add 'ado'
Comprar - comprado
Llorar - llorado
Pensar - pensado
Estar - estado

Of course, as usual in Spanish, there are a fair few irregular verbs, but I'm afraid, for them, it's back to the perspiration, and learn them as best you can.
A few examples:
Ver - visto
Ser - sido
Hacer - hecho
Decir - dicho
Poner - puesto

I'm not going to list the conjugations of haber here as, now you know about it, there are dozens of places to find verb charts, like

I hope that you found this useful or, put another way,
'Espero que tu lo hayas encontrado útil'

¡Hasta la próxima!

Friday, 21 September 2012

Read to me in Spanish, my Android friend.

If you've been reading this blog for a while, you'll know that I started learning to speak Spanish with audio lessons, in my car, after my workplace shifted some 35 miles further up the M1.

I still listen to Spanish every day in the car, only now it's podcasts, Spanish music, recordings of me reading lists of verbs and clauses which generate the subjunctive (honest!), audio tracks ripped from YouTube videos which I have to study for homework and, most recently, recordings of my lessons in Secondlife, with Ximena.
Well, now I have something else to listen to.
Step forward, Talkadroid.

If you have an Android phone, or other device, you may have experimented with the TTS (text to speech) settings.
Well, as Spanish is a strictly phonetic language, it lends itself perfectly to TTS, and Talkadroid is an application which acts as a front end for the TTS and allows you to
  • Type a word in and have it read out loud (nothing exciting so far)
  • Have it read in a number of different 'languages' - the language packs you can install determine how the TTS deals with the pronunciation of each combination of letters
  • Speak and have your speech typed on screen
  • Speak or type in a word or phrase, have it appear on screen, then have it translated to your chosen language, typed on screen and read out loud, in that language!
  • Open a webpage in your browser, 'share' it with Talkadroid, which will then read it to you.
It's the last feature that I've found most useful, as it means I can 'read' webpages which I need to study for homework, while I'm driving, without taking my eyes off the road.
Talkadroid also allows you to vary the speed of the reading, to make it easier to follow.

The Talkadroid App is available from Google play for a very reasonable 99p.
There's also a free 'Lite' version, but I didn't bother trying it out.

To get the best out of the App, I also recommend installing SVox Classic TTS.
SVox is a Swiss company which specialises in language packs for such devices as SatNavs, and Spanish is only one of over 30 language packs available (actually more than one, as there's a choice of European or Mexican pronunciation)
The Android App is free, but you then need to buy your chosen language pack (although there is a free trial available) I'm currently trialling Mexican Angelica (so to speak) but will definitely be handing over the princely sum of £1.99 when the trail period is up.
You can buy the App here and there's a short video too, showing what the App can do.

I hope you find it as useful as I have.

Monday, 13 August 2012

How do you feel?

So what's the difference between 'sentir' and 'sentirse'?
I'd always assumed it was something to do with one being more subjective (I feel ill) as opposed to physical (it feels hard).
Well (surprise, surprise) I was wrong.
In meaning, at any rate, they are the same.
What differs is the structure.

As simple as I can make it . .
Siento = I feel - followed by a noun - e.g. annoyance, happiness
Me siento = I feel - followed by an adjective - e.g. annoyed, happy.
That's all there is to it!

To remember which one to use a noun with, I think of the phrase for 'sorry' (lo siento) which literally means 'I feel it'.
'Lo' is a pronoun (stands in for a noun) so, as long as you remember it's 'lo siento' and not 'me lo siento', you've just mastered another part of the Spanish language ;¬)

Of course, I can't let a discussion about feeling pass, without, at least, mentioning 'estar', 'dar' and 'tener'

Phrases using 'dar' and 'tener' are like the ones using 'sentir', in that they use a noun.
So, three ways to say 'I'm hungry', using the noun 'hunger'

Siento hambre  (I feel hunger)
Me da hambre (It gives me hunger [makes me hungry])
Tengo hambre (I have hunger) - This is the phrase you will normally hear -  the others are just for examples of structure

Or, using the adjective, you could say (although you probably wouldn't)
Me siento hambriento (I feel hungry)
Estoy hambriento (I feel hungry)

There are some phrases which are more commonly used 'set' expressions, like 'tengo hambre', 'tengo calor' (I'm hot) 'Estoy caliente' also means 'I'm hot' but, if you're a woman, I wouldn't recommend saying it to a red-blooded latino, unless you're prepared for the results ;¬)
There's also 'me da pena' (it pains me) and you'll no doubt come across several more, but now at least you can begin working on your own set of alternative expressions.

I hope you're not feeling too confused after all that ;¬)

¡Hasta pronto!

Sunday, 29 July 2012

The Fiestas of Mexico - part 2 uploaded.

The second part of Ximena's presentation on the fiestas and celebrations of Mexico, with English translation (of a sort ;¬) is now available on You Tube.

Lo, La, or Le?

I've referred before to the excellent podcasts, created by Mercedes Leon, from Barcelona, at, and how I habitually listen to them, while driving to work.

Recently, I was listening to one which dealt with what can be a fundamental issue for novice Spanish learners, and it occurred to me that someone might benefit from a translation of some of Mercedes' words of wisdom , well before they reach the level of fluency required to enjoy her podcasts.

The original transcript of the podcast, mainly in Spanish, is at .
I'm sure Mercedes wouldn't mind me converting at least some of the concepts from it into English.

Firstly, lets get some scary grammatical terms out of the way.
1)Pronoun: a word which replaces a noun. If the 'ball' is the noun, 'it' is the pronoun. If 'Roger' is the noun, 'him' is the pronoun.
2) Direct Object: This is the thing or person that the verb acts upon. So, in the sentence 'I throw the ball', the ball is the Direct Object of the verb. Which means that, in the sentence 'I throw it' (meaning the ball) 'it' is the Direct Object Pronoun, the pronoun which takes the place of the Direct Object.
3)Indirect Object: something that 'receives' or 'suffers' the RESULT of the verb acting on the Direct Object. I realise that sounds really obscure, so let's clarify with an example. 'I throw the ball to Sam'. Sam is the Indirect Object of me throwing the ball (the ball is the Direct Object of my throwing)

Put it all together and we get 'I threw it to him', where 'it' is the Direct Object Pronoun, standing for the ball, and 'him' is the Indirect Object Pronoun, standing for Sam.
If you're still not sure, try this test.
Ask WHAT is thrown?
Answer:it/the ball (Direct Obj)
To (or at) WHO (or what) is it thrown?
Answer:him/Sam (Indirect Obj)

But what's all this really about?
Three simple words 'lo', 'la', and 'le'.
In their simplest forms,in order, they mean 'him or it', 'her or it' , and 'to him, to her or to it' (can also mean 'of', or 'from' him,her or it, as well as some other meanings)

In English, things are really simple, because you don't have any choice but to use 'him', 'her', or 'it' for both direct and indirect pronoun.
Give him the book (= give the book TO him). . him = Indirect Object Pronoun - 'the book' was the thing being given (Direct Obj Pronoun)
I took him to school . . him = Direct Object Pronoun - 'HE' was the person or thing taken
but both examples use 'him' as the Object Pronoun, Indirect or Direct

In Spanish
Di le el libro = to HIM (le) give the book
Lo llevo a la escuela = HIM (lo) I take to school
differentiating between HIM and TO Him

So trying to make it as strightforward as possible (and I didn't realise how difficult that would be :¬) If the verb acts DIRECTLY on the thing or person, use the Direct Obj Pronoun 'Lo' or ''La'
I pushed it - Lo empujé
I threw it - Lo eché
I hit him - Lo golpeé
I found her - La encontré

If the verb has an INDIRECT action on the thing or person, use the Indirect Obj Pronoun 'Le' Examples:
I threw the toy to her - Le eché el jugete a ella (here 'a ella' is added, to clarify the gender of the recipient, as 'le' can be regarded as a neutral pronoun)
I read the book to him - Le leí el libro
I gave him lunch - Le dí el almuerzo

Unfortunately Spanish has one more 'gotcha', which I really need to include.
As you probably know, when you carry out an action on a person, rather than an object, Spanish insists that you include an 'a' after the verb.
Golpeé a Sam - I hit Sam.
Recogí a los niños - I collected the kids.
Now the usual translation of the word 'a' is 'to'.
This can cause confusion, when identifying your pronoun.
I said that 'le' means 'to him' so, surely, 'a Sam' means 'to Sam', so wouldn't you say 'Le golpeé'?
Unfortunately not.
The 'a' in these cases doesn't mean 'to'. It's just a way of personalising the verb, to identify that it is acting on a person, rather than an object, so the correct version is 'Lo golpeé'

I'd like to be able to give you a formula for avoiding this error, but the only method I can think of is to construct the sentence in English, realise that the word 'to' is not included in the English version, then translate it, but that rather contradicts my preference for trying to think in Spanish, so your brain isn't trying to handle two languages at once!

Otherwise you could try asking yourself what the construction would be, if you substituted an inanimate object, or an animal, for the person.
Apart from that, I just want to be sure that you're aware of the trap, and leave it to you to find a way of not falling in to it.

Well this has turned out to be a much more complicated explanation than I expected (honestly Mercede's Spanish version seems a lot simpler) but I hope it has given you a few pointers on how to sort out Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Sunday, 22 July 2012

The Fiestas of Mexico - part one online

Apologies to any of you who turned up an hour early to yesterday's presentation in Opera Joven, Secondlife. I got the time wrong!
If it's any consolation, I was there an hour early, too.
If you didn't make it, you missed a very interesting presentation on the types of fiestas and celebrations which take place each year, in Mexico, by my teacher Ximena, in Spanish.
The level of Spanish wasn't too advanced. Well it can't have been too bad, because I was there translating it live, for the audience.
Anyhow, if you'd like a quick look at the presentation, I'm just, as I type, uploading the first 15 minutes to YouTube.
It will give you an idea of the level of Spanish I've managed to reach in two years under Ximena's instruction, and also allow you to listen to her speaking. She has a wonderfully clear voice, which makes her easy to understand.
It will be a good listening practice and, of course, there's the English translation.
Please excuse any mistakes or omissions, but I soon found out that listening to someone speak, and understanding is a long way from listening, understanding, retaining, translating and repeating.
Honestly, by the end I was exhausted.

Hope you enjoy it.

Thursday, 19 July 2012

Introducing , , , Me

Here's a date for your diaries - Saturday 21st of July, at 12 noon, Second Life Time, El Tigre makes his first public appearance as a translator.

My teacher Ximena is going to be giving a presentation, in Spanish, in virtual Jalisco
( )
and I will be translating for the non Spanish speaking members of the audience.

Sorry, you won't get to hear me speaking Spanish, but I expect it to be quite a challenge, anyway.

The show will take place in the two-storey builing adjoining the cathedral (see picture) and will feature a presentation and slideshow about the various fiestas which take place every year in Mexico, the traditions, the origins, the music and the costumes.
I've already had a run-through, and I certainly found it fascinating.

That's 12 noon SLT ,which is 8pm (20:00) British Summer Time (if we ever get a Summer, this year).
Consult the clocks on the right of this page, to see the current time in SL, which will help you to calculate what time you'll need to arrive.

If you don't have a Second Life account, clicking on the link above will take you to a page where you can set one up - It takes less than five minutes, and its FREE!

If you do have an account, follow the link and teleport in from the Map page.

I look forward to seeing you there.
Just hope I don't freeze ;¬P

Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Welcome to the 3D Classroom

Finally, after upgrading my PC, I'm able to run a fantastic piece of software called Fraps.
Much loved by Gamers, it allows you to record action on screen, and the accompanying sound, so they can show off their finest moments in Call of Duty.

What it means for me is that I can now record my lessons in Second Life, and I can review them as often as I like.

Admitted, an hour of full-screen recording uses 6Gb of space initially (this comes down to around 500mb after compression) but I'm really going to enjoy using it.

It allows me to show off, to non-Second Life users, exactly what they're missing.
So, with that in mind, here's a (very) brief snippet from my last lesson, which I've uploaded to YouTube, just to give you an impression of what a virtual Spanish lesson is like.

Sunday, 8 July 2012

I love it when a plan comes together

During your time learning Spanish (aprendizaje - also means 'apprenticeship') you may, or may not have come across the term 'cognate'.
Put simply, a cognate is a word which sounds and means the same in both languages, like 'revolución' or 'bar'.

Whether or not you've heard the term, I'll bet you've come across the phrase 'falsos amigos'
These are words which sound the same, but mean something quite different.

embarasada = NOT embarrased, but Pregnant! (embarrasing if you got it wrong)
introducir = NOT introduce, but Insert! (allow me to introduce myself?!?!?)

So I've rounded up a few cognates and falsos amigos, dealing with the subject of making Plans.

Planear - nice and simple - to plan. Planear hacer algo - to plan to do something.
Planificar - also to plan.
Plañir - to mourn or grieve over someone/thing
Plantar - to plant - e.g. a tree
Plantear - to bring up or raise e.g. a subject
Plantificar - to plonk something down. Drop unceremoniously.
Proponer - to suggest or propose
Proponerse algo - to put one's mind to something
Proponerse hacer algo - to intend to do something
Pensar en hacer algo - to intend to do something BUT
Intentar = to Attempt e.g to do something, NOT intend AND
Atentar = assault e.g. attempt on someone's life NOT attempt to do something
and finally 'Pretender' - NOT pretend, as in mislead, but aspire to or intend to do something.

Hopefully that will help more of your Spanish plans come together but remember
'del dicho al hecho, hay mucho trecho'
(it's easier said than done ;¬)

Tuesday, 12 June 2012

Walk, don't walk. Talk, don't talk

If you're old enough to recognise the title as a quote from the 1978 BoomTown Rats hit, 'Rat Trap', that just goes to prove that there's no age limit on learning Spanish ;¬)
The title also serves to illustrate the two different uses of the Spanish Imperative (or as Michel Thomas called it - 'command' ) tense, positive and negative.

Unless you're extremely bossy (mandón) or rude (maleducado), you probably won't use the Imperative very much, but it's always useful to know and, although it's mostly regular, there are a couple of things to look out for.

Let's start with the regular parts. The conjugation is very similar to the Subjunctive, in that the final vowel changes from 'a' to 'e', or from 'i' or 'e' to 'a' (what Michel Thomas refers to as 'switching tracks')
So, to tell someone to STOP! ( verb 'parar') you'd use PARE!
The most common example, which you'll hear quite a lot is 'look'. This is either literal, as in 'look at that', or to draw someone's attention to what you are saying as in 'look here'. Take the formal 'you' (usted) conjugation of 'mirar' , which is 'mira', and change the final vowel, and you get 'mire'.

Now let's try a verb ending in 'er' - Leer - and order a group of people to read.
Take 'leen', change the final vowel (which, in this case is NOT the last letter of the word) and you get 'lean', or 'leanlo' for 'read it, all of you'.
Verbs, like 'sentir' or 'dormir' which are irregular in the present tense, still work the same. You keep the present tense irregularity e.g. 'duerme' (you sleep), and just change the final vowel, so you get 'duerma!' (sleep!)

Right, that was the easy part (honest)
As usual, in Spanish, there are always irregular verbs and, in the Imperative, most of them follow the same pattern of irregularity that they have in the Subjunctive. A great example is 'decir' (to tell)
The 'usted' version of 'tell me' is 'diga me'
I'm hoping you're familiar with what Michel Thomas referred to as the 'go-go' verbs. These are verbs where the present tense conjugation for 'yo' ends in 'go'

Tengo (of tener) - I have
Digo (of decir) -I say
Hago (of hacer) - I do
Pongo (of poner) - I put
Traigo (of traer) - I bring
Vengo (of venir) - I come
Salgo - (of salir) - I go

They're actually quite straightforward, in the Imperative, as the 'go-go's just go 'ga-ga'
So . .
'Ponga lo allí' - you (usted) put it there (change the 'o' to an 'a')
'Traiga me la cuenta' - you (usted) bring me the bill.
'Hagan lo' - all of you (ustedes) do it!  etc.
Note: these would normally be written, and said, as 'pongalo', 'traigame' and 'haganlo'. I just put a space in, so you can the verb endiing more clearly.

The more observant of you might wonder why I keep specifying 'usted'. Well, the 'tu' form introduces its own extra irregularity, but we'll come to that shortly.

Now for another easy bit. How do you tell someone NOT to do something?
Just say 'NO' (and move the pronoun 'lo' so it's before the verb)
'No lo ponga allí' - don't put it there
'No lo hagan' - don't do it (ustedes)
'No lo comas' - don't eat it (tu)

Whoa! didn't I just say 'tu' was irregular?
Well, it is, but in the positive, or affirmative, version of the Imperative.
When you're telling someone NOT to do something, 'tu' follows the same pattern as 'usted', just with the familiar 's' on the end,
'No me digas!' (tu) - 'don't tell me that!' - you will hear this SO much. It's the equivalent of  'No way!'
'No corras' (tu) - 'don't run'
'No sientes allí'  (tu) - 'don't sit there'
'No me mires' (tu) - 'don't look at me'

So where's the irregularity?
When using the positive imperative for 'tu', in most cases, you just drop the 's' from the present tense conjugation.
Example: 'comer' (to eat) - '(tu) comes' - you eat
'Come lo!' - Eat it!
Note the difference with 'Coma lo!' - Eat it! (usted)
But 'no lo coma' - don't eat it (usted)
and 'no lo comas' - don't eat it (tu)
Example: 'llamar' (to call) - 'me llames' - you call me (tu)
'llamame' - tu
'llameme' - usted
'no me llames' - tu
'no me llame' - usted

Unfortunately, we're not quite done with the 'tu' irregularities, as there are a half dozen or so verbs, including the 'ga-ga's, where the positive Imperative is just totally different to anything else.
Unfortunately, you'll just have to commit them to memory. Fortunately there aren't too many.
OK - the list
(poner) - 'pon' - 'pon lo allí' - put it there (tu)
(hacer) - 'haz' - 'haz lo! - do it! (tu)
(decir) - 'di' - 'di me lo' (dimelo) - tell me it (tu) [The title of an Enrique Iglesias song, too]
(tener) - 'ten' - 'ten cuidado' - take care (tu)
(venir) - 'ven' - 'ven con migo'  come with me (tu)
(salir) - 'sal' - get out (tu)
(ir) - 've' - 've te' - go away (tu)
(ser) - 'sé' - 'sé felíz' - be happy (tu)

The last one reminds me to mention that 'ser' follows the same conjugation in the Imperative as in the Subjunctive, so 'be happy' (usted) is 'sea felíz'
'Ir' also follows the Subjunctive pattern so 'Go with God' is 'vaya con Dios'

As I said, at the top of the page, there are nicer ways of asking people to do things than a direct instruction ('puedes traerme la cuenta' is more polite than 'traigamela') but I've spent a lot of time trying to impress the irregularities, especially the difference between positive and negative 'tu' conjugations into my brain, so I thought this would be a good exercise for me and, hopefully a helping hand for you.


Monday, 11 June 2012

Specialist Spanish

Having extolled the virtues of Spanish immersion classes in my last post, here's a shameless advertisement for some new courses, recently launched by profesora XimenaModotti Carami.

Apart from her regular Spanish immersion classes in Secondlife, she is now also running specialist classes, targeted at specific professional groups.
You can now book lessons with technical vocabulary and learning packages aimed at Doctors, Nurses and medical professionals, as well as people involved or interested in Politics or Religion.

One of the Doctors, at our local medical centre, recently left, after learning to speak Spanish, and now lives, semi-retired, but certified to practice, in Spain.

I can imagine that anyone wishing to do volunteer work, with Church organisations, in South America would also benefit.

It hadn't occurred to me before, but learning another language is an effective way of expanding your employment horizons.

Ximena tells me that she is also working on the creation of a course aimed at pilots, and has launched a new package of Tourist Spanish classes, for new learners who know little or no Spanish, but wish to aquire some basic knowledge.

Here's a copy of a program she recently sent me:


Learn and Practice the Spanish language and discover the culture and expressions of Mexican people while you are learning Spanish.

I have different types of Spanish classes:


SPANISH FOR TRAVELLERS (for students with a little or no experience in the Spanish language)




SPANISH PRACTICE FOR ADVANCED LEVEL. (with oral and listening drills)



The cost per each virtual class is: $10.00 US

Avatigre watching a YouTube video, in class

Immerse yourself in Spanish

Want to see something really impressive?
How about a twenty year old, who speaks 11 languages?
I have heard it said that, once you have learnt to speak a second language, subsequent languages become easier, but I think I'll stick with Spanish. There's still a lot to learn.

On the subject of multi-lingual people, I was fortunate enough, recently, to be on a course run by a really nice guy, by the name of Ronald. Ronald's family comes from Malaysia, and some of them still live there, but his parents moved to Holland, when he was quite young, so he also learned to speak Dutch. Like all kids, growing up in Holland, he learned to speak English, and now he is married to a Madrileña (a lady from Madrid), so he speaks Spanish, too. He also speaks some German, Italian, and a little Arabic. 

Now, if all this is making you feel a little inadequate, let me tell you a little secret that Ronald shared with me. At home, he generally speaks Dutch or English, and his Spanish only tends to come out when he's talking to his wife's family (or when someone like me imposes themselves on him , for a little practice). What he admitted is that it actually takes a little while for his brain to adjust from one language to another so, if he hasn't spoken Spanish for a while, it takes a little time to get back up to speed and, once he's in a Spanish-speaking environment, it's easier to maintain the flow, than if he's constantly switching between Spanish and other languages.

Hasn't it happened to you? Someone finds out you speak Spanish and, out of the blue, throws a phrase or question at you (often with an atrocious english accent) and expects a fluent reply.
You're brain just isn't 'tuned in' to Spanish, and you freeze, making everyone wonder if you really speak Spanish at all.

It's the same in class. When I have a presentation to do for Homework, I used to prepare notes in English, then try to translate, on the fly, into Spanish. It just didn't work. Now I make my notes in Spanish, so I don't have to try think in English and talk in Spanish.
Believe it or not, it's true, after learning Spanish for a while, you DO begin to think in Spanish. Sometimes you will listen to a phrase in Spanish, and understand it perfectly but, if someone put you on the spot, and asked you to translate it into English, you'd struggle, because you're not THINKING English at that moment.

This, I think is the main reason why immersion courses work, because Students are surrounded by Spanish all day, and their brain can filter out extraneous English influences.
I, personally, can't afford to take two weeks to travel to Spain, or South America, and live in a school or learning environment (although I'd love to try), but at least I can spend a whole hour at a time, in class speaking and hearing ONLY Spanish, which really works for me.

If you'd like to try the immersion method, my profesora, Ximena, has openings for new Students, and can be contacted via the following links (Ximena is Eunice Ruiz outside of SL)
Perhaps I'll see you class :)

Football - Spanish style.

I'm told, by football-loving friends, that Euro 2012 is about to start, and I seem to remember that Spain did rather well in the last World Cup so, even though I'm not a fan, I thought you might find some football-related vocabulary useful.

All of these terms can be found in a series of podcasts produced a couple of years ago by Mercedes Leon at
Like all of Mercedes' podcasts, they are well worth a listen
There is also, now, an option to make a donation to keep her site going. A couple of quid via Paypal is a small amount to support such a fantastic resource.

Football vocabulary

Un partido de fútbol - a football match
Un equipo - a team
Los jugadores - the players
La alineación - the lineup
La plantilla - the Team, including reserves, trainers, support staff
La reserva - the reserve
El banquillo -  the bench
El terreno de juego - the pitch
Las graderías del campo de fútbol - the seating area/terraces
Los “hinchas”. Los “aficionados”. Los “seguidores”. La afición - the Fans
El portero - the goalkeeper
La porteria - the goal
Los defensas -  the defenders
Los centrocampistas - midfielders
Los delanteros - forwards
El árbitro - the referee
Un silbato - a whistle
El árbitro pita una falta -  the referee blows his whistle for a foul

FoulsGolpear - to hit
Empuja - to push
Pone una zancadilla a otro jugador - to trip another player
Tocar el balón con la mano - touch the ball with a hand

Penalti - penaltyUn tiro libre - a free kick
Enseñar una tarjeta amarilla/roja - show a yellow/red card

Tirar/disparar/chutar - shoot
Regatear - dribble
Esquivar - dodge
Marcar un gol - to score a goal
La pelota se estrella contra el larguero - the ball hits the crossbar
Comentarista deportivo - commentator
Hacer la ola -  to make a (Mexican) wave
Empate - a draw

So, if you're heading across to Spain, during the football season, at least you'll be able to understand some of the commentary on the TVs in the bars, or on the Taxi-driver's radio.

Sunday, 10 June 2012

Tampoco es importante También

I'd say it's a safe bet that you're all familiar with the word 'tambien' (also, too) but how many of you, like me, sometimes experience a little confusion, when confronted with its opposite, 'tampoco' ?
Dictionary definitions include 'neither', 'not . . either' and 'nor'.

To be honest, the definition of the word is not what catches me out, it's the way that it's used.
If you heard 'Ni Pedro ni Alejandro tampoco' you'd undestand that we were referring to NEITHER Pedro NOR Alejandro EITHER although, in this case I'd argue that the 'tampoco' is almost redundant, as 'ni . . ni' means 'neither . . nor' anyway.

If I told you that I don't have a car, 'No tengo coche', you might reply 'yo tampoco tengo coche'. These are the cases where I sometimes slip up, because I hear the 'Yo xxxxx tengo coche' but, if I'm not paying attention, I hear the exact opposite of what the speaker is saying. In this case 'tampoco' is vital to the sentence because it means 'nor do I' or 'I don't either'

While I was making the point about the importance of 'tampoco', I mentioned 'ni', or 'neither...nor'. What I hadn't realised is that there's no direct Spanish equivalent of 'either..or', except in the negative. For instance 'I have never been to either Madrid or Seville' would use '' (nunca he estado ni en Madrid ni en Sevilla',  and 'I don't like them either' would use tampoco, 'ellos me gustan tampoco'

So what about 'I can buy either of them'?
Well, it seems we have no option but to default to 'puedo comprar ó eso ó el otro'. 'I can buy EITHER that one OR the other' or 'cualquier' (any one of them), which applies equally to three, four or five objects as well as it does to two - 'puedo comprar cualquier de los dos (tres etc)'

It's just another of those occasions where a word in one language simply does not have an exact translation in another.

Don't believe me?
 Dictionaries ready?
What's Spanish for 'anywhere' or 'everywhere'?

Have fun.

Thursday, 17 May 2012

Here, there and everywhere

A few postings ago, I mentioned that I had ordered the soundtrack album of the film 'Habana Blues'
Getting hold of it wasn't as easy as I'd expected.
First, Amazon cancelled my order, because the vendor suddenly found they were out of stock, then the Argentinian record shop, from whom I have bought in the past on Ebay, discovered that their copy was damaged, and also cancelled the order.
With no other options available, I decided to buy the MP3 download from Amazon.
To be honest, burnt to a CD, along with some Julieta Venegas, and a couple of CDs I picked up in Cuba,  and played on my car stereo, I can't tell any difference between CD and MP3.

Anyhow, the point of all this rambling is, that one of the tracks on the CD has quite an interesting title 'Echate p'allá, echate p'acá'
I reckon a fairly close, if rather boring, translation would be 'move yourself over there, move yourself over here', although the use of the verb 'echar' (to throw) does suggest a more energetic movement.
But it did make me think about the differences between 'allí', 'allá', 'acquí' and 'aca' (and let's not forget 'ahí')

I've done quite a bit of reading, and opinions seem to be divided - some will tell you there's no difference between allí and allá, while others will disagree.
The consensus seems to be that they both mean 'there', but vary in terms of distance.

Allí generally refers to a 'there' which is quite close to the speaker, for instance in the same room - 'Ponga la silla allí por favór' (put the chair there, please) but carries a sense of 'over there', so we're dealing with a location which you can see, and point to.
Allá, on the other hand, suggests a much greater distance so, if you were talking to your Mexican friend on Skype, you might say '¿que tiempo hace allá?' (what's the weather like, over there?)
There are also some expressions which use 'allá', such as 'más allá', which means 'beyond'
Finally, there's 'ahí', which is apparently becoming more popular in modern speech, which suggests even closer proximity, for instance the salt, on the table just  out of reach 'está ahí'

The difference between 'aquí' and 'acá' is also very subtle, with 'aquí' pretty much referring to the exact spot you're standing on, while 'acá' can refer to your general location so, if we were talking on the phone, I could tell you 'Estoy acá, en Inglaterra, aquí, en mi escritorio' (I'm here in England, here at my desk)

While we're discussing distance, this might be a good opportunity for a quick revision of 'esto', 'eso' and 'aquello'
A lot more straight forward than 'aquí' etc :-)
'Esto' = this - e.g. What's THIS  in my hand? '¿qué es esto, en mi mano?'
'Eso' = that - e.g. What's THAT in your hand? '¿que es eso, en tu mano?'
'Aquello' = that (over there) - e.g.  What's THAT over there? '¿que es aquello?'
Obviously, these examples refer to the pronoun 'THAT', but the sense of distance is equivalent when used with the definite article 'THAT'
e.g. '¿quien es aquel hombre?' - Who's THAT man (over there)?
'Tomo este libro' - I'll take THIS book.

Well, I hope that's cleared things up a bit. Researching the point has certainly helped me to clarify it.

Just one more thing, before I go. . . my Spanish teacher, profesora Ximena, has had an enquiry about lessons, from a reader of this blog (Hi, Reader :-) and has asked me to update references to lesson costs.
The current rate, for new students, wishing to take lessons in her virtual classroom in Second Life, is $10 per hour.
At current exchange rates, that's about £6.35 per hour. I defy anyone to find quality Spanish tuition cheaper, anywhere else!
See her SL profile at

¡Hasta la próxima! , or just join Second Life and search for ximenamodotti.carami

Sunday, 15 April 2012

I believe the children are our future

For this week's tarea (homework) I had to find a news article, which interested me, so I could comment on it in class - opinions such as 'es bueno que . .' (it's good that . .) or 'es triste que . . ' (it's sad that . ) or 'me da risa que . . ' (it makes me laugh that . . ) generate the subjunctive, which we are still working on (so 'es una pena que aun trabajemos con el subjuntivo' - note: NOT 'trabajamos' - is a typical example)

Anyhow, I came across a news item which has appeared in several Mexican periodicals, about an Internet video called 'Niños incomodos' which is causing quite a stir in the country, and warranted a mention in the Spanish press too.

The video shows a possible future, in which corruption, crimes such as kidnapping, robbery, illegal immigration, and environmental conditions, have all worsened but, what is causing the furore, is that all the actors are children, playing , as one goverment official complains 'los papeles de ladrones, de policías corruptos, de lanzafuegos, de limosneros, de sobornadores, de funcionarios corruptos, de secuestradores y secuestrados; de manifestantes y policías represores; de traficantes de indocumentados.'

Whew! well that's 'the roles of robbers, corrupt policemen, firebreathers, beggars, bribers, corrupt officials, kidnappers and their victims, protestors and repressive police, traffickers and illegal immigrants'

Anyhow, representatives from all political parties are complaining that acting in the video is a breach of the children's human rights, and want it banned.

Irrespective of your political stance (and no, this is not the place for me to voice mine) it's an interesting video, and can be found at

But, if you really want to practice your Spanish listening, and prepare to be amazed by the clarity of the speaking voices of these Mexican youngsters, actors in the video, go to
and hear what they have to say about their roles, and their hopes for the future of their country.


Thursday, 29 March 2012

THIS is why we learn Spanish!

I'm back from my holidays, with fading memories of an amazing city, and even more wonderful people.

My two lasting impressions of Cuba have to be, firstly, the huge grins, which spread across peoples' faces, when they realise you speak Spanish and, secondly, my consternation when I realised that a lot of Cubans don't speak the same Spanish we do!
I never cease to be amazed by the warmth and friendliness of Spanish speakers, when they realise that you've invested the time and effort to learn their language, and the Cuban people are some of the friendliest I have ever met. They are delighted to converse with you in Spanish, even though virtually everyone I met spoke excellent English. They are patient, and wait for you to figure out what you want to say, and how you're going to say it, without prompting, or interrupting you, and happy to repeat, or rephrase anything you don't quite catch.
That said, there is likely to be quite a  lot you don't catch, if you engage in conversation with someone with a strong Cuban accent.

I spent quite a lot of time, having short interchanges with one of the dining room staff (meseros) at our Hotel.
If you go to the Riu Varadero, lookout for Yotuen. He's a fantastic guy, helpful, and not at all perturbed by the fact that he had to repeat everything two or three times, before I finally caught his drift.

A strong Cuban accent involves dropping lots of consonants, and blending letters together.
Commonly, they will lose 's', 'd','j','b','v', and words ending '-ado', will become '-ao' ( I have come across this in mainland Spain, too)
So 'nos vemos despues, al otro lado', might well become 'no vemo  depue, lotro lao'
When you listen to conversations around you (it's not eavesdropping, it's education) you could be forgiven for wondering if it's another language, altogether.

On the other hand, Jenny, also in the dining room, had a wonderfully clear accent, was chatty and cheerful, and got into the habit of greeting us in Spanish, whenever she saw us.
I also spent a half hour playing table table-tennis with one of the 'animación' staff (El Rey del Riu, he announced, after beating me for the third straight game) and found out quite a bit about the hotel complex and local area.
We spoke mainly Spanish, but the Staff spend so much time talking English and French (as most of the guests are Canadian) that it's almost second nature to them. To be honest, the nearest I heard to any other guest speaking spanish was 'Hey, Buddy, can I get another surresa over here?' (cerveza=beer)

Another character worthy of mention is Julio, the tour guide, who took us on a bus and walking tour, during one of our three days in Havana. He, too, had superb diction and, because we shared the coach around the city with a group of Argentinians, he gave a commentary in both Spanish and English. I was feeling pretty pleased with myself,as I understood virtually every word he said (in Spanish, that is)

So, if you're considering a trip to a South American/Carribean country, I wholeheartedly recommend Cuba. It's sensibly priced. It's safe. It's fascinating and, as a Spanish student, you are guaranteed that little extra welcome.

If you want to get a taste of the Cuban accent, there are several complete examples of Cuban cinema on YouTube. On my return, my profesora, Ximena, thought it would be good practice for me to watch Habana Blues . Not only is it an engaging story, but the music is so good, I've ordered the soundtrack album!

I've also just found 'Un Rey en la Habana' which looks like it may be interesting, although I've not had chance to watch it yet.

Finally, I can't close without a mention of Cuban music, which is amazing, live, and everywhere you go ( I came back with a couple of locally recorded CDs) and Che Guevara, whose image you will see everywhere (Yes, I bought the t-shirt), so here are three quite different versions of a song which really grew on me while I was there, and now listen to regularly, 'Hasta Siempre, Comandante'

Sunday, 19 February 2012

Televisión en Español, gratis.

Some of you may recall, in a previous post, I mentioned that I had installed a satellite dish, to enable me to watch Spanish language TV.
It wasn't a particularly expensive project, but here's a way you can watch dozens of Spanish language channels, absolutely free.

Just go to and you can access over 100 channels.

Once you've selected the language you wish the site to be displayed in, just select the a country from the scrolling list on the left, and you will be presented with a list of the channels, from that country, available to view online.

The list includes Spanish-speaking countries from Argentina (35 channels) to Venezuela (7 channels), passing through Mexico (32) and Spain (70) along the way.
Other countires include Aruba, Chile, Cuba (I have to admit, I get a much better picture on CubaVision with my satellite, than you will online, but it is watchable), Dominican Republic, Peru and several others.

A couple of my favourites, are CubaVision (Cuba, obviously) and Telesur (from Venezuela), but you can spend a few happy hours, finding out which suit your needs best.

I'm not sure how often WWITV (World Wide Internet TV) is updated, but there are a few channels which don't play.

Connecting and displaying the content works in a variety of ways, depending on which channel you choose.
Some open a new window, direct to the Broadcasters' websites (these are labelled 'on site').
Some require the Microsoft Silverlight plugin.
Some require Real Player, some Windows Media Player, some Flash Player and still others require installation of a plugin called 'veetle'.

Obviously you'll have to make your own mind up about what you are comfortable installing on your PC.

Available content varies from Government-run stations, to Music TV, Christian TV, News Channels and General TV, where you can find kids programmes and even some movies.
So now you have a good excuse to spend hours watching TV - it's Educational.

¡Hasta la próxima!

Sunday, 12 February 2012

Demystifying Spanish Grammar (with impenetrable English explanations?)

It's rare that I buy books on Spanish grammar. There are just so many resources available free on the Internet, but I was recently searching for a definitive list of 'when to use the imperfect' (yes, for last week's posting) and I followed a link to Google books, where I came across a book called 'Demystifying Spanish Grammar', by an author called Brandon Simpson.
So, here's a short review.
Brandon begins with a statement that the book is not for beginners. Up to a point, I would agree. Some of the explanations and background assume a good grounding in English grammar and language; by chapter 2, he is already talking about 'diphthongs'.
Don't let this put you off, though,as there is a lot in this book which can be of use to beginners, as well as students of other levels. You can always skip sections that are currently beyond you, and return to them, as your studies progress.
It's not a big book, by any means, according to the Google books version, it's 111 pages ( I mention this, because it's available in a variety of formats, at varying prices - but more on that later ) but it is split into clearly defined sections, each dealing with a specific Spanish 'problem area', some of which you may have already encountered.
1) Written accents
5)The Subjunctive

Now, as I mentioned, Brandon has a habit of using some pretty esoteric English grammar terms, like 'Monosyllabic Homonyms', but he does, usually give an explanation of each term, and follows it with examples.
So 'monosyllabic'? - not difficult - having one syllable. 'Homonym'? - a word that sounds like another word. The term 'monosyllabic homonym' crops up in chapter on accents, and the words in question are 'el' and 'él', so don't be blinded by the technical vocabulary.

Throughout the book, Brandon explains the rules which underpin the correct usage of the various parts of Spanish Grammar, adds acronyms of his own, to help you remember how they should be applied, gives  a wealth of examples, and there are even exercises for you to work on, with answers in the appendices.

Overall, I think this book falls into a difficult niche.It is dealing with a number of grammar constructs, which vary in difficulty from Ser/Estar up to the Subjunctive which, to be honest, deserves a book to itself. Consequently, there are areas which intermediate students will probably already have mastered, and areas which are, as Brandon states, too advanced for the beginner. In his bibliography, he even recommends a book on English grammar, to assist in the understanding of any foreign language. Having said that, it's a compact volume, which is structured in such a way that it can easily be used as a reference book, just picking out the parts you need, as you need them.

For this reason, and the quality of the content, I found the book to be a very useful addition to my Spanish learning toolkit and, what's even better is the price.
You can buy the book in paperback from for £4.95 or you can do what I did, and buy the Kindle version at £3.08 !
Don't worry, if you don't have a Kindle. For the one payment, I now have the book on my Kindle, my iPod, my Android phone, and my Laptop, all running the Kindle application and, what's even better, if your devices are continuously Internet connected, you can close the book on one, and open it on another, in the exact same place where you left off!

If you want to have a browse through some of the book's content, before deciding to buy, click over to and have a read, but be aware that only selected pages are available to view.

Let me know if you find it useful.
¡Hasta luego!

Thursday, 2 February 2012

No 'ifs' or 'buts'

Re-reading yesterday's post, I realised there'd been something niggling at the back of my mind.
Anyone familiar with the Spanish learning course recorded by Michel Thomas will have one or two of his catchphrases burned into their memory. He had a knack of summarising certain topics, which made them impossible to forget.

The most memorable is his preterite cha-cha, where he took the endings of the first and third person singular (that's 'I' and 'he/she/it/you [formal]') for 'ar' and other 'non-ar' verbs, in the preterite tense, and chanted them to a cha-cha rhythm - "e and o and i and io, e and o and i and io. It's like a cha-cha. You could dance to it and, you know what . . you'll never forget it"
You were spot on Michel. I never have.
However,unfortunately, I have to take issue with one of his other memory aids.

This one's a little  more complicated. He started with the endings for the condtional tense, which are based on '-ria'.
The word for a river is 'rio' so, if there were such a thing as a feminine river, he argued, it might be called a 'ria' - with me so far?
A word which crops up frequently in conditional phrases in English is 'would' - e.g 'I would do it, if you let me'
Michel reasoned that using conditional statments was going into the 'woulds' (woods) so the way to remember the ending was to imagine that, every time you went into the woods, you would find a feminine river (-ria)
I have to admit that, until now, like many of Michel's lessons, it has been a great help to my poor memory.
Until I started using it in the wrong place!

For a phrase to qualify as conditional, there has to be a condition.
In most cases this would be 'if', or perhaps 'provided that' or 'so long as' - so it's quite correct to say 'yo te lo traería si me pides' - 'I would bring you it, if you ask'

However, if you were to say 'When I was young, I would bring him a newspaper every day' - there's no condition. It's just something I did, or used to do.
Back to yesterday's posting - actions repeated in the past?
So that's 'cuando yo era joven, le traía un periódico cada día'

Well apart from pointing out that little pitfall, I hope I've made two other points. One is that you CAN learn valuable Spanish lessons, which will stay with you for a long time, from a quality audio course, but the other is that there's no substitute, as you advance, for having a real teacher to pick up on, and correct any misunderstandings along the way.
All learning is good - enjoy yours.
¡Hasta luego!

Wednesday, 1 February 2012

The Past comes back to haunt us

We've just started telling stories in class.
Profesora Ximena has been giving us examples of legends from Mexico, then encouraging us to retell them in our own words, and also to provide examples of fables or tales from our own countries (I did a reasonable rendition of 'the sword in the stone')

Now you can practice verb conjugations and do exercises to prove that you know when to use each of the two past tenses, but it's not until you start telling a tale, from scratch, in your own words, that you realise that the only way to master them is to practice using them in conversation.

But, until you get the chance to have a face to face with a real-life Spanish speaker (don't forget, there are plenty of them waiting in SecondLife, and at here's a brief reminder of some of the principle differences between the preterite and the imperfect.

Use the imperfect for:
Habitual actions in the past - 'I used to see him every day' - 'Lo veía todos los días'
Physical, mental or emotional states - 'she was sad and she was hungry' - 'estaba triste y tenía hambre'
Things which already existed - 'there was a car park' - 'había un aparcamiento'  (estacionamiento in South America)
Actions in progress - 'I was brushing my teeth' - 'me cepillaba los dientes'
Reported speech - 'she told me she was going to the shops' - 'me dijo que ella iba a las tiendas'
Useful hint here: - memorise 'IBA A' - it means 'WAS GOING' and can be used with almost any verb to express 'was going  . . . to do . . whatever'

There are several hints which you might hear, to help you remember general cases for the imperfect.
Anyone who has completed the Michel Thomas course will remember his references to WAS-ING and WERE-ING, i.e if you WERE do-ING something (action in progress) then you'd use the imperfect.
Another trick is to remember imperfect as 'incomplete', this follows the same logic - if you WERE doing something, then you hadn't completed it, so imperfect again.

Final trick - if the question is 'what happened?',  the answer is in the preterite. If the question is 'what was happening?', the answer is in the imperfect.

A few cases to look out for here. The first two involve mixing the imperfect and preterite in the same sentence but, thankfully, they're fairly hard-and-fast rules so are easy to apply, once you've mastered them.

1) Reported speech.
The part of the speech you are reporting is always in the imperfect.
So - 'he told us that the Pharaohs built the pyramids' - ' nos contó que los Pharaohs construían las pyramides'
(I don't want to complicate things too much here, but it would also be possible to say 'he used to say that the Pharaohs built the pyramids'  - where 'used to say' is an habitual action, so you would use the imperfect for both that, AND the reported speech - 'nos decía que los Pharaohs construían las pyramides')
2)Where one action interrupts another.
The action which you WERE do-ING is in the imperfect, interrupted by another in the preterite.
'I was reading, when you called me' - 'yo leía cuando me llamaste'

Finally a couple of little oddities. One will be familiar to Michel Thomas devotees - the use of 'saber' (to know). Almost every time you use 'saber' in the past, it will be as 'sabía', on the basis that you didn't just know it for a moment, you still know it, so the action is incomplete. The preterite 'supe', 'supe' etc, when it is used, is taken to mean 'I found out'

The second is one I was corrected over in class - I wanted to say that Merlin has taken the young Arthur, as a baby, and used 'Merlin lo hubo llevado', assuming that it was a completed action and should therefore be in the preterite.
However, when you think about it 'Merlin lo llevó' is a completed action (Merlin took him) but having taken him, you could argue that he was then in a continuous state of 'having taken him' and continuous or ongoing actions require . . the imperfect. So that's one to remember, along with 'iba a' - 'Had done something' = 'había hecho algo'

Apparently 'hubo' is used, but mainly to refer to events - for instance 'hubo una fiesta' - 'there was a party'

Well, I've rambled on for long enough, and reckon you can probably figure out for yourselves what's left to use the preterite for, and I still have some homework to do so it's ¡Hasta la proxima!, and see you next time.

Tuesday, 24 January 2012

P.S. please R.S.V.P.

Just when you think you're developing a fairly wide vocabulary, you pick up a Spanish newspaper, or go to or and find the articles are peppered with abbreviations, not all of which are in your trusty pocket dictionary.
Unfortunately, it's the nature of abbreviations that you can't translate them, unless you know what they stand for.
So here are few of the more common ones.
Let's start with the easy ones and, by easy, I mean those which use the same letters as their English equivalents, just in a different order.

OTAN=NATO. Organización del tratado del atlántico norte
ONU=UN(O). Organización de las naciones unidas
SIDA=AIDS. Síndrome de imunodeficiencia adquirida
EAU=UAE. Emiratos arábes unidos
TAC=CAT (scan). Tomografía axial computerizada
ADN=DNA. Ácido desoxirribonucleico
CE=E(E)C. Comunidad Europea
FMI=IMF. Fondo monetario internacional

Now some which are not quite so obvious
ONCE organización national de ciegos espanoles. The equivalent of the UK's RNIB
ONG  organización non gubernmental = a charity
ONL  organización non lucrativa = non-profit organisation
SA Sociedad anónima = equivalent of a PLC in the UK
EE UU Estados Unidos = The United States
AC/DC Nothing to do with rock music, these are the equivalents of BC and AD (antes de Cristo/despues de Cristo)
PP partido popular - Spanish political party
DF Distrito federal (in Mexico)
Edomex = Estado de México

And, finally, and rather appropriately
q.e.p.d. (que en paz descanse) or R.I.P. in English.

Almost missed my favourite
OVNI=objeto volante no identificado (that's UFO to you and me)

I'm sure there will be many more in the News, so feel free to add comments and include any interesting ones you find.

¡Hasta la próxima!